A Brief History Of Hydroponics

The study of crop nutrition began thousands of years ago. The earliest published work on growing terrestrial plants without soil was the 1627 book, Sylva Sylvarum by Sir Francis Bacon, printed a year after his death.

Water culture became a popular research technique after that. The word ‘Hydroponics’ was coined by Dr. W.F. Gericke in 1936 to describe the cultivation of edible and ornamental plants grown in a solution of water and dissolved nutrients.

It literally means working water; ‘hydro’ meaning ‘water’ and ‘ponos’ meaning ‘labour’. Many civilizations have utilized hydroponic growing techniques throughout history. For example, the hanging gardens of Babylon and the floating gardens of the Aztecs of Mexico and those of the Chinese. All these are superb examples of Hydroponic culture.

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built around 600 BCE by King Nebuchadnezzar for his wife, Queen Amyitis who was homesick for the mountains of her homeland in Media, Persia.

The ruins lie in the long since gone ancient city of Babylon, which was near the modern city of Baghdad in Iraq. The gardens were a very beautiful structure, using advanced hydroponic technology. Babylonian engineers designed an advanced system of shafts to carry buckets of water continuously. The water carried in the buckets filled the fountains and pools in the Garden. The energy to allow this was supposedly supplied by slaves turning massive screws. This well system was the first and only one of its kind in Babylon.

Hieroglyphic records from Egypt dating back several hundred years B.C. describe the growing of plants in water. Hydroponics is hardly a new method of growing plants. However, much development and improvement has been made over the years in this innovative area of horticulture, and agriculture.

In 1699, John Woodward published his water culture experiments. He found that plants in less pure water sources grew better than plants in distilled water. By 1842 a list of nine elements believed to be essential to plant growth had been made out, and the discoveries of the German botanists, Julius von Sachs and Wilhelm Knop, in the years 1859-65, resulted in a development of the technique of soil less cultivation.

Growth of terrestrial plants without soil in mineral nutrient solutions was called solution culture. It quickly became a standard research and teaching technique and is still widely used today. Solution culture is now considered a type of hydroponics where there is no inert medium.

Throughout the last century, scientists and horticulturists experimented with different methods of hydroponics. One reason behind the drive to develop hydroponics was the need for growing fresh produce in non-arable areas of the world. Today, it is a well know fact that in some parts of the world, plant life does not grow in the available soil.

During the Second World War, troops stationed on non-arable islands in the Pacific were supplied with fresh produce which was grown in locally established hydroponic systems.

Later in the century, hydroponics was integrated into the space program in the USA. Hydroponics is NASA’s solution to provide a self sufficient food source for future space stations and proposed visitors to Mars. The administration has sponsored a research program called Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) in order to further develop hydroponics technology and carry it into the future.

When NASA considered the practicalities of locating a society on another planet or on the Earth’s moon, hydroponics helped to fulfill the answer to this plan. In fact, NASA have a list of 15 plants, grown using hydroponics that will save your life (should the need ever arise).

By the 1970s, it wasn’t just scientists and analysts who were involved in hydroponics. Traditional farmers and eager hobbyists became attracted to the virtues of hydroponic growing.

In 1978, hydroponics pioneer Dr. Howard Resh published the first edition of his book; Hydroponics Food Production. This book spurred what has become known as the 3-part base nutrients formula that is still a major component of today’s hydroponics gardening.

Resh later went on to publish other books, and is currently in charge of a highly advanced hydroponics research and production facility in the Caribbean.

Some of the reasons why hydroponics is being adapted around the world for food production include:

  • No soil is needed
  • Water stays in the system and can be reused, lowering water costs
  • It is possible to control the nutrition levels in their entirety lowering nutrition costs
  • No nutrition pollution is released into the environment because of the controlled system
  • Stable, safe and high yields
  • Pests and diseases are easier to get rid of than in soil because of the container’s mobility

Today, commercial growers are utilising hydroponics more than ever before. The ideals surrounding these growing techniques touch on a number of subjects that most people care about today such as helping to end world hunger and making the world cleaner.

In addition to the extensive research that is going on, everyday people from all over the world have been building or buying their own systems to grow good-tasting, fresh food for their family and friends and ambitious individuals are striving to make their dreams come true by making their living in their backyard greenhouse, or attic, and selling their produce to local markets and restaurants.

For others, hydroponics allows them to build impressive ‘vertical’ gardens, that would otherwise be impossible using traditional soil based methods.

In fact, most of the plant and flower arrangements you see nowadays in large office apartments are displayed using hydroponic systems. It makes feeding the system so easy, ensuring healthy looking all-year-round displays.

George Pattenson

Source by George Pattenson

How I Ended Up With a Wife 50 Years Younger Than Myself

Before you call me a dirty old man, let me relate the whole story to you. It was 2003 and I was living in the UK, where I was born. I have been around a little, having lived in the UK, France, Bahamas, Jamaica, Canada, Colombia and a few other places.

At the good old age of sixty nine, life was a little boring. I lived in Sheffield with my sister and her husband in a house left to us my my mother. I believe that she paid about 30,000 pounds for the house in the forties. Before the housing price collapse, this same house was valued at about 300,000 pounds. I was still working, selling PVC windows and doors on commission and doing OK financially. Not rich but I was able to support myself. I drove my old BMW around and followed a few of my interests like gardening, writing, photography and computers. Unfortunately I had to give up my two favourite hobbies, that of flying and motor racing. Apart from anything else, my hearing was going down the drain. Health wise I was in pretty good shape. Ten years earlier I did have bypass surgery for blocked arteries but made a complete recovery and also changed my eating habits constructively in order to prevent a re-occurrence. I kept my mind in good shape by solving the most difficult crosswords and sukodus.

The one thing missing in my life was someone to love and to love me. Of course during my life I had had numerous affairs. I lived with a Colombian girl for twelve years and have a daughter who is in her twenties and with whom I am very close. On the other hand, I had never had any desire to actually tie the knot. Now, I thought, it’s too late to even think about that. I did have a couple of female friends in their fifties with whom I associated and occasionally slept with but there was no real love there.

Surfing around the internet, I struck up a friendship with a young man called Ali from Indonesia. I had to get out the atlas to find out exactly where that was. We often discussed the differences in our cultures, he being a practicing Muslim and me being born Jewish but now a staunch Atheist. This did not affect our friendship and Ali kept on inviting me down there to visit him. He was always asking me why I wasn’t married and I tried to explain to him that I was really too old to think about that. He consistently mentioned that the girls in his town were not that interested in a man’s age and in fact preferred older men as they were more faithful and reliable.

Well the time came when I was particularly bored and Ali invited me once again. This time I said “Let’s do it!” The next day I booked a flight to Jakarta from Manchester airport and I was on my way.

A direct flight would have cost me thousands of pounds, so I elected to travel via Dubai. There was a long stopover there but I was saving a pile so just put up with it. The airline that I was flying was Emirates and I was very impressed with the service.

I lost count of the hours but finally arrived in Jakarta. As I entered the reception hall, the first thing that I noticed was that everyone had a big, beaming smile. Even the Immigration officer and the Customs inspector, who just took the form that I had filled out without reading it and just waved me through. Definitely not like entering the USA where I was often treated like a suspected mass murderer!

Ali had offered to meet the flight but that would have meant him travelling hundreds of kilometers. As I was a seasoned traveller I felt that I would have no difficulty, in spite of not speaking one word of Indonesian.

After I left the reception area and entered the airport I was really surprised that many more people smiled an waved at me, like they knew me. In the UK I would walk for miles and be totally ignored. I was beginning to like Indonesia already!

From Jakarta a took a one and a half hour flight to Surabaya where Ali met me. From there we drove for almost three hours to his house in Problinggo. By this time I had been travelling for thirty six house without any sleep. I have never been able to sleep on airplanes, probably because I am an ex-pilot and always wonder what is going on in the cockpit. Something like a car driver who hates to be driven by someone else! So I slept at Ali’s place for a few hours until I felt refreshed and not suffering from jet lag.

Probolinggo is a small town located in East Java. There is only one main street and very few traffic lights. Most of the residents live in villages and are generally poor. Because of this, the prices of most things are extremely low. Many families exist on less than one hundred dollars per month.

Ali took me downtown and we did a tour of the local stores. What really amazed me was that many young, beautiful store girls approached us and asked Ali where I was from and even asked him to bring me to their houses to visit. Ali explained that they very rarely see anyone from the West and are really attracted to them. He told me that I could probably marry many of the young girls who I had met. I couldn’t believe it. “If that’s the case,” I said to him. “Why don’t we start a website introducing Indonesian girls to Western men? I’ll design it and you find the girls.” Ali thought that that was a great idea so over the next few days he took me to photograph many beautiful girls who he said would love to marry Westerners. During these excursions, I received several offers of marriage…I was in shock! Ali told me that most of the girls estimated my age as below 50…I wish!

On the third day of my visit I was taken to meet a young lady called Yuyun. I didn’t think that she was ravishingly beautiful but she was very sexy looking. She was 20 years old and didn’t speak one word of English. I led her out of her house into the garden to take some photos of her and, as we were walking, she took my hand. I felt a little pulse of excitement but assumed that she was just being friendly.

After about thirty minutes we returned to the house and said our farewells. I had almost forgotten about it three days later as Ali and I were driving around. He received a call on his cell phone and turned to me. “That was Yuyun.” he said. “She wants to know why you haven’t called her and she wants you to take her up in the mountain tomorrow.” I was somewhat taken aback but I certainly wasn’t going to say no.

The next morning, Ali duly drove us up into the hills and arranged to pick us up in the late afternoon. I was armed with an electronic translator, pen and paper. In spite of the lack of language we managed to communicate really well and I found that Yuyun and I had a similar sense of humour. We spent most of the day laughing together. We had so much fun that we arranged to meet the next day…and the next…and the next. Ended up that we spent every day together until it was time for me to return to the UK. We had become really close friends and that’s all that I expected. Eventually we met to say our farewells. “I really hate to leave you,” I told her. “I wish that I could stay with you forever.”

“Well,” she replied. “Why don’t you marry me?

“Are you crazy?” I said. “I’m old enough to be your grandfather.”

“I don’t care,” she answered. “I love you.”

Now I REALLY was in shock. I had to leave the next day as my ticket was unchangeable so I had to make some very fast decisions. There was no doubt that in my mind Yuyun was the most fabulous person that I had ever met but I would be marrying a child almost. I wondered how many more years I would have in this world. My father, who kept himself in fantastic shape and was a champion boxer in his day, died from mital stenosis at sixty two. He did have rhematic fever at an early age which the doctors claimed brought on his problem. Maybe I would inherit my grandparents genes? Grandmother was run over by a bus at ninety two and grandfather killed himself on the motorbike at eighty five! Then there was the possibility of children. Although my performance was obviously not as good as it used to be, I was still able to have sex. It would be unfair to leave Yuyun with a young child.

We got together with Ali and discussed these and other points but Yuyun still insisted that she wanted to marry me. We talked to her parents and they had no objections. “OK.” I said finally. “I know I must be crazy but I am not going to give up this last chance of happiness that I have.”

I told Yuyun that I would settle up all my affairs in the UK and return in three months and set up house with her. I had been looking at houses with Ali a few days before so left him some money to pay as deposit on one.

All the way home I kept wondering if I had done the right thing. Every middle aged man has fantasies of making it with a young girl and here I was, about to make a life of fantasy into real life. As soon as I arrived home I called my daughter in the USA.

“Hi Baby,” I greeted her. “I’m going to get married.”

“That’s great Daddy, she replied. “Whatever makes you happy makes me happy.”

“There’s just one thing,” I continued hesitatingly. “She is two years younger than you.”

There was a short silence. “Oh…Really? Well I’ll have to send you a wedding gift…How about a baby seat for the car?”

I explained that we were not yet planning to have children.

“It’s not for a child, it’s for your new wife” she giggled

“Very funny!” I said.

I should mention that the two of them have now met and are really good friends. Once while we were out together someone asked my daughter if Yuyun was her sister. “Don’t be silly,” she said jokingly. “That’s my mother.”

Well, after just a week in the UK I missed Yuyun so much I asked my sister to just dispose of my car and everything and booked the next flight back to Indonesia. When I arrived there, we started making the wedding arrangements. Yuyun took me to many of her friends and relatives to introduce me and I received a fantastic reception. Nobody made any remarks about the age difference in fact a few of her friends told her that they wish that they could find a nice husband like me. The arrangements were completed in three days and we were married. The reception was small, about fifty people and lasted into the night. After that, we went to our new house which Ali had furnished for us and started our life together.

To tell you the truth, the age difference has not really entered our minds. We are totally in love and, at the time of this writing have been together for six years. We are still like a coupe of teens, hugging and kissing all day. We always hold hands wherever we go and we are constantly saying how much we love each other. Personally I don’t feel old except when I look in the mirror or have my photo taken. As of this writing, we have been together for six years. To date, we have never had a fight or even an argument even though we spend all day together. Actually we hate to be separated even for a hour and never get bored with each other. Yuyun wakes up with a smile which stays with her all day long. I can wake her up in the middle of the night, take her out on the motorbike in heavy rain and she will still be laughing and giggling…even during the couple of times that we have slid off the bike into the mud.

I started a fish farm here so that after my demise, Yuyun can decide whether to remain here and be assured that she has a living income, or to go to the US and live with my daughter who would be happy to have her. Everything here is under her name so that she will not have any legal problems.

While I certainly am not recommending that someone my age follow in my footsteps, I know now that I made the right decision. I could never have met anyone like Yuyun in the UK.If I die tomorrow, it will have been well worth it.

Source by Sheldon Archer

10 Ways to Get a Shower on the Road

Hello travelers, people living out of a vehicle and other awesome folks, here are 10 Ways to Get a good Shower On The Road.

1) At a campground Campground showers vary from one place to the next. Some are excellent, some use solar power so you are out of luck if it’s after dark, and others are not heated at all. Water pressure is also a variable. Some have consistent water pressure while others will only get a weak stream when someone hops in the shower next to you or runs the sink. Campground showers can vary from deluxe with your own private changing room to just a primitive curtain or in rare instances, nothing at all. Some are well kept and impeccably clean and others you get to share with a few spiders and other mystery guests.

2) A community pool is another option. You may have to pay a few bucks to use the pool, but the showers are generally free. And hey, why not go swimming while you’re at it? They usually only accept cash and hours are limited.

3) Get a 5 gallon solar shower These are pretty cheap, usually less than $20 for a simple one, and can be quite useful when you’re roughing it. If you leave it in the sun for a few hours you’ll have a hot shower. If it’s not hot enough, a cup of near boiling water should do the trick. Just don’t burn yourself! If privacy is still a concern, for around $70 you can get a portable privacy shelter, such as the Texsport Deluxe Camp Shower/Shelter Combo. It works great for car camping.

4) The Solo 465 Stainless Steel Sprayer can be used as a medium pressure camp shower. Several people have commented they place it on a stove top burner and heat it up, then pressurize it and then it’s shower time. My friend tried this by pouring hot water into a 2 gallon plastic sprayer tank that he had and it made a great shower. It uses about 40 ounces per minute so that is a 6 minute shower using only two gallons. Another suggestion is to shower with Dawn Direct Foam soap instead of bar soap, then when it’s empty, you can refill it with your own scented soap and distilled water. The foaming soap lather won’t be affected by hard water. And it works for dishes too.

5) Get a day pass to a local fitness club. They usually run just $5 to $10, have really nice showers, and there is no excuse not to get a great workout while you’re at it!

6) Stop at a road house or large gas station such as Flying J, TA or Pilot, and other road trip stops with amenities for travelers and truckers alike. These tend to be some of the nicest showers you can get on the road as you get your own private bathroom with plenty of hot water and water pressure. Plus you get your own sink and toilet. Towels and soap are usually provided though you’re welcome to bring your own supplies. The cost is usually between $5 and $10 USD. If you’re traveling with your significant other, they’re usually willing to let you pay the one fee for a shared room. If you’re a little hard up for cash and feeling brave, you can also try asking a trucker if he or she has an extra shower coupon. Truckers often get free shower coupons when they buy gas and may have an extra to give away (or sell for a buck or two).

7) Visit a friend, relative or make a new acquaintance and ask to use their shower…sure, you might get a funny look, but what are friends for?

8) Try the “It Makes Sense Shower head.” You still need a water supply, but this device will help you save water. You can take a hot shower using very little water which is helpful when you’re on the road, so long as you don’t mind the chill in between the water spray. It has a chain to pull to adjust the flow of the water from a full spray to a trickle while you lather. It’s similar to a navy shower, and great for conserving water.

9) Zodi Hot Tap Single Burner Travel Shower runs off propane and 4 D batteries, so you can get a hot shower any time of day at the push of a button. It holds 4 gallons of water which is good for a 10 minute shower. Costs about $130

10) Hotels with swimming pools will sometimes let you use their pool for a small fee, and usually have public showers.

Source by Sandra Long

Microsoft CRM Migration – Moving From One Domain To Another

Microsoft Dynamics CRM is becoming the tool of choice for small, medium and even large businesses across USA and even worldwide – and there are strong arguments to support this statement: it is web based, plus it uses Microsoft Outlook replication model and allows you to work offline. However so far we think Microsoft CRM was not popularized in the direction of being transferred to new business owner when old business is sold or want through transformation, resulted in Active Directory reinstallation. Below we would like to offer you highlights, tested with Microsoft CRM 3.0 and we believe that future MS Dynamics CRM releases will be more flexible in the sense of transfer from one domain to another

· New Domain with the same name. Considering you are moving, downsizing, upsizing, for example you have to upgrade from Windows Small Business Server to Windows Enterprise. Install your new server and migrate Exchange users and email from your old domain

· Back Up Microsoft CRM company and metabase databases

· Mount company and metabase databases on your new Windows server SQL server

· Run MS CRM Redeployment tool/wizard. At this time you should be able to map MS Exchange migrated users with your old users. Please be advised to rename users ID after MS Exchange migration – this is required and part of the procedure

· Install MS CRM 3.0 in your new domain with the same name, chose map existing databases, be sure that your are entering the same company name

· Apply your custom reports and MS CRM SDK customizations to new environment

· Additional Tips. SM CRM Redeployment tool resolves Active Directory GUID with human

names, so you can try additional experiments in this direction. Try to avoid Crystal Reports, use MS SQL Reporting Services instead. When doing MS CRM programming, please follow MS CRM SDK (Software Development Kit) rules and conventions, do not do direct SQL Server scripting, or if the last is required – create your development DB and place custom objects there.

Source by Andrew Karasev

The Importance Of Excel In The Workplace

Excel is perhaps the most important computer software program used in the workplace today. That’s why so many workers and prospective employees are required to learn Excel in order to enter or remain in the workplace.

From the viewpoint of the employer, particularly those in the field of information systems, the use of Excel as an end-user computing tool is essential. Not only are many business professionals using Excel to perform everyday functional tasks in the workplace, an increasing number of employers rely on Excel for decision support.

In general, Excel dominates the spreadsheet product industry with a market share estimated at 90 percent. Excel 2007 has the capacity for spreadsheets of up to a million rows by 16,000 columns, enabling the user to import and work with massive amounts of data and achieve faster calculation performance than ever before.

Outside the workplace, Excel is in broad use for everyday problem solving.

Let’s say you have a home office. You can use Excel to calculate sales tax on a purchase, calculate the cost of a trip by car, create a temperature converter, calculate the price of pizza per square inch and do analysis of inputted data. You can track your debt, income and assets, determine your debt to income ratio, calculate your net worth, and use this information to prepare for the process of applying for a mortgage on a new house. The personal uses for Excel are almost as endless as the business uses for this software – and an Excel tutorial delves into the practical uses of the program for personal and business use.

The use of spreadsheets on computers is not new. Spreadsheets, in electronic form, have been in existence since before the introduction of the personal computer. Forerunners to Excel and Lotus 1-2-3 were packages such as VisiCalc, developed and modeled on the accountant’s financial ledger. Since 1987, spreadsheet programs have been impacting the business world. Along the way, computerized spreadsheets have become a pervasive and increasingly effective tool for comparative data analysis throughout the world.

Today, end users employ Excel to create and modify spreadsheets as well as to author web pages with links and complex formatting specifications. They create macros and scripts. While some of these programs are small, one-shot calculations, many are much more critical and affect significant financial decisions and business transactions.

Widely used by businesses, service agencies, volunteer groups, private sector organizations, scientists, students, educators, trainers, researchers, journalists, accountants and others, Microsoft Excel has become a staple of end users and business professionals.

The beauty of Excel is that it can be used as a receiver of workplace or business data, or as a calculator, a decision support tool, a data converter or even a display spreadsheet for information interpretation. Excel can create a chart or graph, operate in conjunction with Mail Merge functions, import data from the Internet, create a concept map and sequentially rank information by importance.

Excel offers new data analysis and visualization tools that assist in analyzing information, spotting trends and accessing information more easily than in the past. Using conditional formatting with rich data display schemes, you can evaluate and illustrate important trends and highlight exceptions with colored gradients, data bars and icons.

Indeed, Excel can be customized to perform such a wide variety of functions that many businesses can’t operate without it. Excel training has become mandatory in many workplaces; in fact, computer software training is a must for any workplace trying to keep up with the times.

Let’s say you’re an employer with 97 workers, 17 of whom called in sick today, and you want to know the percentage represented by absentees. Excel can do that. You can learn Excel and use it to determine the ratio of male to female employees, the percentage of minorities on the payroll, and the ranking of each worker by compensation package amount, including the percentages of that package according to pay and benefits. You can use Excel to keep track of production by department, information that may assist you in future development plans. You can create additional spreadsheets to track data on vendors and customers while maintaining an ongoing inventory of product stock.

Let’s say you want to know your business production versus cost. You don’t have to be a math wiz – you just have to learn Excel. Excel allows you to input all of the data, analyze it, sort it according to your customized format, and display the results with color, shading, backgrounds, icons and other gimmicks that offer time-saving assistance in later locating precisely the information desired. If this spreadsheet is for presentation purposes, Excel helps you put it together in such a visually appealing way that the data may seem to pop and sparkle.

The single most important thing an employer may do is learn Excel – it is one of the most essential tools of the workplace.

Excel and Microsoft are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation, registered in the U.S. and other countries. Lotus is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries.

Source by Sheri Graves

Dentures & False Teeth History (Part-1)

In short, denture problems boil down to this: Do you want to smile, look and feel as attractive as possible – or not?

During the long and delicate history of artificial teeth, ancient people as well as people of today would rather not talk about: false teeth, dentures, toothaches or even “going to the dentist.” Even so, it is interesting to note that mankind has had to live with all kinds of “hidden” dental problems for thousands of years, so we might as well talk about, get out in the open and face the problems we all have, problems that are caused by our teeth.

We are all aware of how much more attractive and socially acceptable we are when we simply – smile. But, we also have to face the fact that our beautiful smiles are not “free.” Just as back in ancient days, those most welcome smiles can be achieved in only one way: by paying the cost in both mental anguish and hard earned money for regular appointments to see the dentist. It has always been that way for thousands of years.

Artificial teeth have been discovered in the graves of people who lived in ancient Etruria, The skeleton of Swedish King Gustavus Vasa, who died in 1560, had artificial teeth (dentures) in his well-preserved skull. Out of thirty-two skulls that were dug up from the Bonze age there were seven skulls that still contained sets of artificial teeth. About two thousand years ago a Roman doctor wrote in his medical book that men should wash their mouths on rising to prevent tooth decay. According to the writings of Thomas Berdmore, the dentist of King George III, tooth tartar build-up, as much as one-half inch thick, was, at that time, a major cause of tooth decay.

Many people in medieval times were troubled with constant toothaches. In fact, the ancient Greeks were said to be the first to have used a mouthwash. They made it of castoreum and pepper. It is believed the Greeks were the first to make pliers for pulling teeth. Aristotle who lived from 384 to 322 B.C. wrote that tooth extraction could be started with pliers but should be cautiously finished by hand. Three hundred years later, Celsus agreed with him that the first step in tooth extraction was to detach the gum all around the bad tooth.

The Greeks and Phoenicians were the first to devise methods of using gold wire to bind loose teeth to nearby good teeth. Etruscans tombs, as early as 700 B.C. have revealed attempts to solder wide bands of gold over natural teeth to be held there with pins through the natural teeth. Later, the Romans, learned many dental procedures about how to make partial sets of teeth from the Etruscans, (then a part of the Roman Empire).

The Romans had great awareness and concern regarding dental importance, problems and care. In their Law of the Twelve Tables they had penalties for any form of violence causing damage to the teeth. Example: ‘Whoever shall cause the tooth of a free man to be knocked out shall pay a fine of three hundred as, that of a slave one hundred and fifty.’

After the collapse of the Roman Empire, a Persian physician, Rhazes (850-923) was the first to suggest filling cavities with alum and mastic. Later, Abulcasis (1050-1122) in Arabia advised the use of dental scrapers to remove tartar build up. In fact, he taught the local “tooth barbers” (now called dentists) ways to bind loose teeth to healthy teeth with gold wire. He suggested filling gaps left by tooth removal with bone substitutes that were then held in place with gold wire.

In 1654 Englishman Peter Lowe explained that artificial teeth were being made of ivory and whalebone and then fastened in place with wire. But, until the end of the 17th century there was little or no progress in methods of treating dental problems and the practice of wearing artificial teeth was very rare. In fact, when Queen Elizabeth lost her front teeth she would, prior to appearing in public, stuff her mouth with rolls of cloth (called lip padding) to puff out her cheeks and she held a fan in front of her face when smiling, laughing and talking. We are told the same kind of padding was used by George Washington 200 years later while he was having his portrait painted.

Even the best barber-surgeons, the “tooth-drawers” of that time considered their primary task to be that of cleaning with a variety of scrapers and then washing or rinsing with a solution of nitric acid to whiten the teeth. Much damage was done after repeated applications of these acid cleaners.

At about this time, the 1600s, there was also the practice of transplantation, which involved the removal of rotten teeth and then filling their sockets with sound teeth drawn from another person. Back then; poor people often sold their healthy teeth to barber-surgeons to buy food for their hungry families. By the end of the 17th century the barber-surgeons realized more money could be made when they specialized in making false teeth for the rich.

Artificial teeth were usually made of hippopotamus or walrus ivory. Often a single piece of ivory was carved and then fastened to existing teeth with thread made of metal or silk. Because of this method of fastening the teeth in the mouth, they were difficult to remove. So, they stayed in the mouth and became quite uncomfortable over time. Back then, lower dentures were carved in one piece and closely resembled modern lower dentures. Expensive upper false teeth made of: silver, mother of pearl, enameled copper, Egyptian pebble and Italian agate could be provided and then fastened to an ivory base.

As late as 1789 these false teeth were considered a new invention and were provided as an ornamental luxury for “show” because they were actually quite useless for eating.

Source by Terry Weber

The Growth and Development of the Automobile Industry – A Deeper Insight

The word “Automobile” has its origins in Greek and Latin and it has become an integral part of every man’s life. It has become so indispensable that on an average, a person spends at least 3 hours in his vehicle every day. Automobile was once thought of as a luxury and only a select few could indulge in. Now, the times have changed and automobiles have become a means of transportation catering to the vast majority.

The transformation from luxury to inevitability

Automobiles, in general, refer to the humble car and the estimates suggest that there is a car for every eleven persons on earth amounting up to 590 million passenger cars. There are various variants of automobiles that cater to every cross section of the population. There are variants that could set you back by a couple of million dollars and other models that cost you a few thousand dollars.

The technological advances in the automobile sector have been tremendous in the last 100 years. The century’s greatest invention or advancement should definitely belong to the automobile industry. One of the earliest pioneers of the automobile Industry was Ransom Olds from the Oldsmobile factory. In the early 1900’s, he introduced the Production Line concept, thus churning out vehicles every few minutes. This idea was greatly revolutionized and implemented by Henry Ford, who elevated automobile industry to the next level. Ford quickly grew in the first half of 20th century and slowly but steadily spread globally.

Growing along with time

With advancement of age, the automobile industry gradually grew in continental Europe and England. Japan introduced quality initiatives that further enhanced the industry. Toyoto from Japan were the pioneers of Total Quality Management and Six Sigma, which have been the guiding principles of the automobile industry for the last 50 years. Today, Toyoto are the world’s biggest automobile company according to recent market estimates.

The global boom of the 1980’s was largely because of the automobile revolution. Ford, General Motors and Chrysler, the big 3 automotive giants of America, had a huge say on the country’s economy. They decided the health of the economy and the recent global economic recession has affected them badly. This has made them approach the government for loans and benefits, which have been fulfilled by the government after placing appropriate clauses.

Advent of technology and innovations

Automobile has transcended from being a medium of transportation to a medium of entertainment after the advent of super fast cars competing against each other. NASCAR and F1 races are huge crowd pullers every year. People have made fortunes and drivers of these machines have made their name in history. The fact that automobile racing involves huge costs has made the racing industry reel in these uncertain economic times. The sport has seen tragedies with loss of life in some instances. This has made room for strict safety regulations, which are now mandatory for all the automobile shows.

The negative part

Although man has made a huge leap forward with automobiles, there is a downside to this technological wonder. The emissions from these machines have raised serious environmental concerns with calls for more eco-friendly vehicles. Automobile companies have invested hugely in research and development of eco-friendly vehicles. Except for this single downside, there is slightest of doubts to say that automobiles have been the find of the previous century.

Source by Brenda Williams

Ten Proven Tips to Buy the Best Meat Available

Ten Proven Tips to buy the Best Meat Available

As you look through the meat section at your local grocery store you are probably like so many others asking yourself if the steaks you have chosen is really good meat. Here are some tips on how to make sure you buy good meat.

The quality grade does not necessarily mean that you will be getting good meat. Some cuts of meat are just naturally more tender than others. You should look for cuts from the less used muscles along the back such as the rib and loin sections. The shoulder, flank and leg cuts will be tougher.

How to make sure you buy good meat

As you look through the meat section at your local grocery store you are probably like so many others asking yourself if the steaks you have chosen is really good meat. Here are some tips on how to make sure you buy good meat.

  1. The quality grade does not necessarily mean that you will be getting good meat. Some cuts of meat are just naturally more tender than others. You should look for cuts from the less used muscles along the back such as the rib and loin sections. The shoulder, flank and leg cuts will be tougher.
  2. The USDA beef quality grade is like this prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner. The best beef that you can find is of course prime, but this is very hard to find and does come with a large price tag. Most of the beef that you find at your local grocery will be choice, select or standard. Standard is usually sold as un-graded or as “brand name” meat
  3. Roast and steaks should be firm. Do not purchase soft or squishy feeling roast or steaks no matter the type of meat.
  4. Check the sale by date and no buy after that date. You should buy the meat either before or on the day that is the “sell by date”.
  5. Check the packaging for any type of damage. The meat should be cold and wrapped securely.
  6. The package should not contain any moisture. This could mean that the temperature of the meat has been above 40 degrees and that will cause the taste of your meat to be less quality.
  7. Look for beef that is bright red in color and has thin creamy white fat evenly distributed throughout the roast or steak. On the other hand, veal should not be bright red; it should be almost white in color or lightly pink.
  8. Before you buy any meat find out if it has been injected with flavorings. You do not want to purchase any meat that has been injected with flavorings, this can cause your meat to break down and become mushy.
  9. Do your own tenderizing. Do not buy meat that has been tenderized by the butcher. He uses piercing products that allows the natural flavor and juices to escape from your meat and this will be produce a tough and un-flavorful meal. Try to purchase dry aged if at all possible. This type of meat will probably only be found at a butcher shop. Dry aging is a process where the meat is taken from the bag that it arrives in to the butcher and is hung in a cooler for a certain amount of time to dry out. This will make the cost go up, but the aging adds more flavor and also tenderizes the meat. If you buy your steak from the local grocery, the steak has been cut, wrapped in plastic and has aged on the way to the store.
  10. When in doubt, talk with your butcher. He can answer all your questions regarding the different types of meat, cuts and may even have some great recipes for you to try.

Source by Hans Dekker

Ethical Reasoning Process

I was asked to select a moral question that a marketing manager is or may be confronting in today’s world and apply the Ethical Reasoning Process in addressing the issue. Ethical dilemmas are a daily concerns for some managers. Patrick Murphy, Gene Laczniak, Norman Bowie, and Thomas Klein, authors of Ethical Marketing, outline the importance of senior leadership in corporate ethics. The article focuses on ethical reasoning.

Here’s an example of ethical reasoning. Please consider if marketing managers should take advantage of selling overpriced government products and services that run counter to the concepts of corporate responsibility. The focus involved a past experience with Westinghouse, Inc. which was contracted to the federal government. Of course, businesses operate to make a profit. However, one may wonder to what extent.

Below is the application of ethical reasoning to this situation:

(1) Definition of an ethical problem: The ethical problem was related to the extent that Westinghouse managers would pursue profitability at the risk of legal actions and damage to the company’s brand. Marketing ethics is the systematic study of how moral standards are applied to marketing decisions, behaviors, and institutions.

(2) Selection of an ethical standard: Westinghouse operated under moral relativism in dealing with the federal government. Moral relativism claims that it is personalized according to the individual and his or her circumstances or cultural orientation. Westinghouse, Inc. executives found themselves with this ethical dilemma. In 1992, Westinghouse was a corporate empire, commanding over $12.8 billion in sales and employing over 116,000 people.

Because of its powerful market position, Westinghouse became a corporate oligarchy in the United States. They were active in several business sectors, including radio and television broadcasting; electronic products; industrial operations; power systems; transport temperature control equipment; and environmental cleanup services. Westinghouse executives’ attitude of ‘being too big to fail’ also carried the baggage of ‘anything goes for profit.’

(3) Application of the ethical standard: Managers set the standards for corporate culture. Ethics involves a company’s values. Mark Johnston and Greg Marshall, authors of Relationship Selling, share how employees watch how senior managers act on ethical matters rather than what they say. Therefore, senior managers should lead the way by example. Overall, leadership always sets the tone for ethical practices in their organizations. In the early 1990s, Westinghouse operated six U.S. government-owned nuclear facilities involving nuclear production. Eventually, the company became the largest civilian government contractor.

With a variety of massive contracts with the military, Westinghouse became the twelfth largest defense contractor. However, there was a great ethical price. Westinghouse had been involved in numerous ethical violations, including labor and environmental problems. In March 1991, the DOE’s Inspector General found that Westinghouse and Bechtel Corp. attempted to conceal millions of dollars in overruns by misleading the federal government. In 1985, a Westinghouse employee was found to defraud the Pentagon of $200,000 by overcharging for electrical equipment. Furthermore, Westinghouse was in numerous litigations of violating environmental laws and circumventing safety requirements.

What should a marketing manager do? Marketing managers are responsible for connecting with key stakeholders and promoting their products or services. At Westinghouse, the marketing manager should have reinforced to corporate executives the importance of protecting the company’s brand.

The executives took a very narrow view of profitability. The marketing manager should have discussed a long view approach. Of course, this solution would have gotten the marketing manager fired, but he wouldn’t have gone to jail. In becoming a corporate mogul in the early 90s, Westinghouse created a profit generating machine that lacked a moral compass to navigate its ethical problems.

© 2013 by Daryl D. Green


Donahue, J. (1992). “Corporate profile: Westinghouse web. Retrieved on September17, 2012 from http://www.multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1992/03/mm0392_11.html

Johnston, M. & Marshall, G. (2010). Relationship Selling. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Murphy, P., Laczniak, G., Bowie, N., and Klein, T. (2005). Ethical Marketing. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Hall.

Source by Dr. Daryl D. Green

Oilfield Job – A Mudlogger’s Career Advancement to Data Engineer and Beyond

The oil and gas industry is desperately looking for workers at all levels. They would prefer experienced workers, but beggars can’t be choosers – many of their most experienced staff are reaching retirement age in the next few years and they need those skills transferred before it is too late. Besides roustabouts, a mudlogger is another entry level oilfield job which leads to better things. Many senior staff on oil rigs started off as mudloggers.

A mudlogger:

  • connect various sensors to the drilling apparatus and install specialized equipment
  • collects geological samples of rock cuttings from the oil well (as part of the oil drilling process)
  • monitor gases coming up out of the wellbore as an indicator of hydrocarbons
  • prepares and analyses them geologically
  • writes a report on them
  • enters the information into the database.

Mudloggers work 12-hour shifts, and there are always 2 of them on an oil rig to ensure 24-hour coverage. The job is strenuous and challenging, especially when you have to install equipment and collect samples while drilling is actively going on. You have to be diligent, because part of your duties includes monitoring the level of dangerous gas which can cause a well blowout.

There is high turnover in this oilfield job. Most mudloggers work for oil services companies – not directly for the major companies like Shell or BP. Larger service companies require you to have a geology degree, and expect you to move up the career ladder quickly. Most mudloggers are young, in their early twenties and single. It is rare to see a middle-aged mudlogger. After 6 months to two years of work, you would ideally gain promotion to data engineer, with more responsibilities. As a data engineer, you will also troubleshoot problems which arise, and maintain and repair sensors as needed. For many mudloggers, the eventual aim is to become the wellsite geologist.

Although a mudlogger is an entry level oilfield job, you will earn at least $50,000 annually. Recent information from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists’ April 2008 meeting showed that graduate students with Masters and PhD degrees were receiving salaries of $80,000 to $110,000. Compare this to $55,000 in 2003.

Another perk of your job is travel. Many oil services companies have operations all over the world. For example, Geoservices has service contracts throughout oil rigs on the North Sea. Their employees get the opportunity to travel throughout northern Europe – Norway, Denmark and Holland – when they are off-duty. Working 2 weeks on, 2 weeks off means that you have plenty of time to explore the countries where you are based.

Some new hires hope to use a mudlogger oilfield job to get hired for bigger things by a major oil company like Exxon. This strategy has mixed success. In the United States, many oil wells are owned by wildcatters, who sell their oil to the oil companies. In the North Sea, too, many subcontractors and service companies are used to operate offshore oil rigs. Typically, companies like Shell have only a token presence on board these offshore oil rigs – the company man. Everyone else works for the contractor.

Right now, geology graduates with advanced degrees are being headhunted even before they graduate. But not everyone can go to graduate school, and not every geology student can score straight A’s to attract a company like Halliburton. If your results are only average, your best chance to get an oilfield job is to use proven oil rig employment placement services.

Source by Calvin Loh